This article is supported by Skillshare, goats have weird eyes: your pupils are weird and horizontal and rectangular it’s like it’s like it’s like their human eyes, but not their something, really disconcerting about them.

I think that’s, why they’re, often portrayed as pagan or satanic symbols. I mean cats have got weird pupils, they have vertical slits, but we all seem kind of fine with that there’s, something about the horizontal Ness of the goat eyes that are just like don’t.

Get me wrong. Baby! Goats might be the cutest thing on the face of the earth, especially Damascus, baby goats. You ever seen a Damascus baby goat. Look at this thing that’s. Its ears go all the way to the ground and they curled little ringlets like a baby’s, hair and their mouths, just sort of naturally form into smiles, and I got these big, weird goat eyelashes around their big, weird goat eyes.

I mean this looks like some kind of Disney character. I’m growing ovaries, just looking at it now I mean, of course you know the cuteness does fade a little bit as it gets older. Like all of us, do you know, but I’m sure the adult versions.

You know they might not be quite as cute, but I’m sure they’re handsome fellas and, ladies, you know when you’re, starting from a guy god. What the son of a oh my! How is that? The same goat! What oh well now the Disney on Star Wars? I guess that is a Disney character.

Oh yeah, the eyes, those horizontal goat people’s, give them insane peripheral vision from 320 to 340 degrees of sight. They can see almost perfectly in almost all directions for comparison. We only have 180 degrees of peripheral vision because our eyes are centered.

You know forward like this like most predators. This gives us excellent depth perception. So when we see some pray, we can pounce on it, but goats, like most ungulates, have eyes on the side of their head, so they can see predators coming from all directions and those horizontal pupils give them almost perfect clarity so that everything’s.

In focus all the way around, of course, that comes at the price of their binocular vision. They only get about 20 degrees of that ahead of them, but luckily, for them, what they eat. Grass doesn’t exactly run away from them, so goat’s.

Eyes allow them to take a constant sir, the area around them, so they can see any changes in their environment. It’s, a good survival strategy and it’s. Also, the strategy of Tess, the transiting exoplanet survey satellite constantly scanning the universe for signs of habitable planets, and that is how an eyeball can lead to a much bigger you, God.

The first exoplanet was discovered in 1995 by swiss astronomers michel mayor and didier Kallas, who i owe a deep, deep apology to, because there’s no way. I pronounce that right. Also, how crazy is that I mean 1995 was just well.

I guess it was 2025 ya know. 25 years ago, 1985 was 25 years ago. Excuse me, you went by the name 51 pegasi B and it was discovered by a process known as Doppler spectroscopy. Basically, they observed a wobble in the star 51 pegasi and after mapping out of it, they were able to ascertain that it was probably caused by a large planet like body.

Since then, hundreds of planets have been discovered using the Doppler technique, but far more have been discovered using something called transit photometry when a planet passes in front of its star.

The star briefly appears to dim by measuring the change of intensity of light from a given start. I’m. Astronomers can deduce the presence of one or more planets orbiting that star several earth-based telescopes used transit photometry, including the UK’s, wide angle, search for planets or wasp, which has been the most successful with more than 150 exoplanets discovered so far, francisco rattle A scope was the first to discover an exoplanet from space and also the first to observe a rocky earth-like exoplanet, but the undisputed king of exoplanet discovery is NASA’s Kepler space telescope.

In fact, more than half of all exoplanets we found have been found by Kepler. Kepler was a freaking beast. It survived several different critical system failures and just kept on going and was eventually finally retired in October of 2018.

Although scientists are still crunching the data from Kepler and making discoveries to this day, the, how do you top that, with a giant goat eye in the sky test, the transiting exoplanet survey satellite was launched in April of 2018 with the goal of observing large sectors of The night guy, at a time, rather than just targeting one particular area, that’s, the survey part of its name astronomers, think test could find as many as twenty thousand exoplanets.

At the time of this, article, close to 1,600 exoplanet candidates have been found by test with 37 of them confirmed. There are less than six months left and Tess’s. Initial two-year mission, but the satellite is in such good shape.

Nexus decided to extend it through 2022. Now, one thing it’s interesting about test. Is it’s, not really designed to confirm exoplanets? It’s designed to find exoplanet candidates that then later confirmed by other satellites.

One of those is actually the James Webb Space. Telescope Tess is gon na find a whole bunch of planet candidates and then James Webb will go and focus on them when it goes up in 2021, God willing. In fact, Tess is spending extra time.

Looking at parts of the sky that the JWST can look at year-round, so they can actually have more opportunity to find planets in those areas. So if you can imagine all the stars printed on the inside of a celestial globe with us in the middle Tess is actually focusing on the North and the South Poles of that globe.

Test Ben is first 351 days focused around the South Pole in the constellation Dorado right now it’s. Spending another 351 days, observing the North Pole in the Draco constellation surveying. Nearly the entire sky is a hugely ambitious project.

By the end of its initial mission, it will observed over a half a million stars, and each of these observations are made in full-frame photographs and downloads. Every 30 minutes so will test be able to find all the exoplanets out there.

No, not even not even close, transit photometry is great and it’s been super successful, but it can only find planets that are lined up along the plane of the orbit with their stars, so they need a way to show this.

Only. I had like a Tron disc yeah, so imagine this is a star and this is the orbit of the planets going around the star and you are looking from Earth. So imagine you’re on earth, so, in order for this technique to work, the plane of the planets has to line up exactly with you.

If it’s off by even just a few degrees, we would miss it completely. There’s like 179 degrees, but we would miss so there’s, only a very small percentage of planets. We could actually see with this method, which makes the fact that we’ve caught.

So many of in this way, even more impressive – I mean I just give you a small idea of just how many exoplanets are out there back to the shelf with you that Tron disc, by the way, is symbolic one of the most ardent supporters.

I’ve, had on patreon for the longest time, Matt herring, so thanks Matt, so to notice. The transit test has the benchmark of star’s brightness and then watch it for a period of time, usually about 27 days, and then it moves on to the next sector.

There’s 26 of them total. Now compare this to the Hubble Deep Field which focused on a tiny little patch of the sky for a very very long period of time and allowing you know photons from many billions of years ago to come in and see these galaxies that were really far away.

Hubble by the way can take exposures for up to 22 days, but in total it takes more than 50 days to do that because it rotates around the earth 15 times every single day. So it can only do a certain number of hours per passage.

Now. Test gets around this by operating in a much higher orbit. It takes 13.7 days for a door with the earth now. Orbital periods also limit the number of planets that we might find what test, because it can only watch a patch of sky for 27 days.

Now. Mercury by contrast, takes 88 days orbit the Sun and that’s, the shortest orbital period in their system. So if tests were watching us from a distant star, chances, are they probably wouldn’t have no idea.

We were here, but that’s, probably not a huge handicap for tests. There are still plenty of star hugging planets out there. In fact, the average orbital period for the planets that it’s found is 13 days.

In fact, tests and other exoplanet surveys have given plenty of reason to think that we might actually be the outlier in our universe. It kind of gives more oomph to the rare earth hypothesis theory now.

Another thing about tests is that it’s actually fairly expensive. It’s about half the cost of Kepler, and most of that came from the US government, but 2.5 million of it came from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Mit scientists have been heavily involved with tests from the beginning. In fact, the test science team includes three MIT astronomers and one from Harvard, and the resumes from this team are what’s. The word impressive.

Take, for example, deputy science director Sara Seager PhD. She worked on tests, osiris-rex the Spitzer Space Telescope, Kepler and the James Webb Space, Telescope and somewhere in there. She may have slept, but I can’t be sure.

Professor Seager was actually kind enough to answer some of our questions over email about the test project and when we asked her why there’s, only been 37 exoplanets confirmed so far. She had this to say in the short-term, we were only searching relatively bright stars for planet.

She goes on to say it takes time to go through all the data it’s fair to say the test community has not searched through all the data, particularly the fainter stars recall. There are far more fainter stars and bright ones and when it comes to the estimates of how many planets will not fine with tests, some of those initial estimates were based on simulations that were run before the final mission parameters were set in stone.

They could redo those, but that would require running new simulations and, according to the professor quote, it’s too early to embrace a more conservative estimate. We’re too busy finding planets to do that for the time being well played.

So what kind of discoveries has tests made? Well, it actually started making discoveries before it officially began its mission on July 25th. 2018. It recorded a article of comments C 2018 in one orbiting: the Sun twenty-nine million miles from Earth, and that was when it was just testing its cameras, following that it discovered a rocky super earth, LHS 3844 B, which once upon a time so called terrestrial worlds.

Without to be less common in the Milky Way than we think they are now, Tess is adding to that catalog, while also locating several gas giants on the scale of Jupiter and Neptune. In fact, it found three potentially rocky exoplanets, all huddled up close to star l98 59, but all three were too close to being the star’s habitable zone exoplanet, GJ 357 D is a potentially habitable world discovered by ground-based telescopes after tests called attention To it that same system also had to fast hot world’s, so a potentially habitable one was a bonus.

One of the really cool things we caught with Tess was a supermassive black hole, devouring a star about the size of our Sun and the Boland’s constellation in January of 2019. This specific type of star shredding is called a tidal disruption event.

Something like this is thought to occur in the Milky Way. Only once every ten to a hundred thousand years Tess even caught the transit of a star around another star, he was in the star system. Alpha Draconis and it looks just like one star from optical telescopes.

In fact, it went by the name Thuban, but after watching Thuban, peak and dim and brightness test was able to observe two eclipses one star transiting the other over a period of thirty eight and a half days, and actually there’s.

Some huge news, like just last week that NASA announced that tests found the first earth-sized planet in the habitable zone of its star. It’s, a planet called TOI 700 D and that orbits around a red dwarf in the habitable zone.

Now, because red doors are smaller, the planets that orbit them tend to orbit very close, and this tends to tightly lock them, creating what they call eyeball planets it’s, not the best case scenario for life.

But scientists do believe that this one could have water on its surface, so it’s, a really important one. So while Tess is expected to continue its mission through 2022, there are some new telescopes that are coming out to keep an eye on the European Space Agency just last Cheops an exoplanet hunter specifically designed to follow up results from tests and others, like.

I said before. One of the big things about the James Webb Space Telescope is to follow up on some of Tesla’s results. So Tess is gon na keep people occupied for quite some time, not to mention several ground-based telescopes that are on their way, which I mentioned in a previous article.

The bottom line is the scientific community is gon na, be reaping the benefits of tests for a long time to come, and it’s. Gon na go a long way towards shaping our understanding of exoplanets before 1995 people scoffed at the idea they’re, actually being other planets out there.

I mean it was great for science fiction, you know scenarios, but nobody thought they were real. Today we found over four thousand planets and a dizzying array of them from hot Jupiters that are so hot.

They shouldn’t even really exist to eyeball super Earths to some planets. We literally can’t even wrap our heads around and now we believe the actual number of planets and just our galaxy could be in the trillions with numbers like that.

Most scientists believe it’s just a matter of time before we find that one world that has just the right conditions for life just like our own and maybe in 25 years, we’ll, look back. Finally, at the time when we scoffed at the idea that there might actually be astroturf stereos out there, I mean for all we know the aliens could be on earth right now it’s.

Looking at me, isn’t, it hey. You know one of the coolest things about astronomy right now is not only the role of citizen scientists and culling through all the data that NASA is discovering, but also in you know, creating images of their own.

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