This article is supported by brilliant org. We think we understand a lot of things today and in general we do it’s, a wonderful time to be alive. We’re, discovering exoplanets, seeing back to the earliest days the universe, curing diseases, making articles from your home that people see from all around the world and yet there’s still so many things, basic things that we still just don’t fully understand like sleep, you know.
We think that we need a certain amount of sleep every night, but it turns out there’s. Some people out there that have a genetic mutation that allows them to get by just fine with a lot less sleep than the rest of us.
Why doesn’t sleep deprivation affect these people and what, in this one little gene mutation makes it possible for them to be like that, and how can I get this gene mutation? We don’t know, and while we’re on that subject dreaming, why do we dream? You know there are studies that show that if you don & # 39, t get REM, sleep and the dreams that come along with that it can lead to depression, anxiety, weight gain hallucinations.
What we don’t know is why why do we laugh? Why do we yawn? How exactly does consciousness work? We don’t fully know any of these things. One more thing we might add to that list is Jupiter pretty much everything about it.
It’s, just a total mystery Jupiter’s. Great Red Spot was likely first observed back in 1665 by astronomer Gian domenico cassini yeah. That Cassini, and the reason why I say it was likely first observed, is because it wasn’t observed again until 1713.
So we think it’s the same storm, but there’s, no way to know for sure and the longer we studied Jupiter the harder it is to tell for sure, because, as it turns out in any Google search for images on Jupiter can tell you it’s got a lot of storms.
We got big storms, small storms, white brown, red storms, circular storms, oval storms. Jupiter is basically just a big collection of storms with a bunch of moons around it, but the Great Red Spot. The biggest and most famous of all these storms is shrinking and we don’t really know why.
But perhaps you’re asking the wrong question. Maybe the real question here is: how did this thing form in the first place and then why did it last so long? Jupiter is not like earth. They’re both round.
They both orbit the Sun and the similarities pretty much in their earth. As you might have heard, has mountain ranges and valleys and streams and water features and a topography that interacts with its atmosphere, whereas Jupiter surface is just flat like flat like flatter than Nebraska, which, by the way proportionately, is actually flatter than a pancake.
Somebody actually did the math on this, but those surface features on earth interact with the atmosphere, slowing it down, stirring it up and causing storms, but Jupiter is decidedly flatter because Jupiter is all gas.
Even the surface of Jupiter is gas, which I’ll. Get to more of that in a minute, but with no surface features to slow down the atmosphere there’s, nothing to keep that win from raging as fast as it possibly can, meaning the winds whip around Jupiter at a blistering hundreds of miles an Hour and they stay that way for centuries, but once you take a deeper look into Jupiter things get interesting all that swirling hydrogen and helium in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter starts to change phases.
As you go deeper down in the pressure builds meaning they start to liquefy, keep going down, another 20,000 kilometers or so, and you’ll, see another face, change take place because it gets so pressurized and so smooshed that the electrons actually come out of The atoms and flow across the surface do you want to get metallic hydrogen because that’s? How you get metallic hydrogen – and this, we believe, is the surface of Jupiter a completely flat, featureless expanse of super conductive hydrogen metal, which is pretty metal.
It’s, also the perfect conditions to whip out insane amounts of energy, like 10 million amps, which might explain why lightning on Jupiter is a hundred times brighter than it is here on earth, but back to those never-ending hurricane level, winds on Jupiter, they Travel in these colorful stripes across the planet called zones and bands, the belts of the orange and red stripes.
They travel on a westward direction and they’re a little bit lower in the atmosphere. The zones are the white stripes. They travel in an eastward direction and they sit a little bit higher in the atmosphere.
Now what causes these colors is still kind of a mystery, but we think it may be chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere, interacting with the sun’s UV rays. The UV rays break down molecules that we call chromophores because they change colors under different types of radiation.
Now scientists are pretty sure that its heat from inside of the planet that Spurs all of this activity on the surface, but there’s. A couple of different competing models with this called the deep model in the shallow model.
The shallow model was first introduced in the 1960s and it’s, basically based on our own weather patterns of evaporation, condensation, creating tumbling convection currents that create storms and patterns in the atmosphere.
Now all this churning creates extremely large storms like we see on Jupiter, but it doesn’t account for the longevity of these storms. That’s kind of the flaw in this model. The deeper model came out in 1976 and it uses the fluid dynamics.
Taylor, proud men theorem. It states that any fluid that’s, held together with just pressure like the hydrogen. The liquid hydrogen at the center of Jupiter would start to circulate in different cylindrical zones.
Think of it like this, you have a sphere now segments that sphere into cylinders parallel to the spinning axis, each having their own independent rotation any place where these cylinders intersect creates a jet stream which goes on to make the zones and belts that we see from The outside, now it doesn’t need to be stated that these are just theories.
Jupiter’s. Thick atmosphere makes it virtually impossible to see what’s going on underneath, but what isn’t hard to figure out is how these you know. Different movements of jet streams collide and create vortexes that eventually become storms, and one thing that we have noticed is that the smaller storms are more white and the larger storms are more red.
In fact, back in the 1930s, they first observed three oval white storms. That later combined into one storm, they called it oval ba. Now what’s interesting? Is that when these three white oval storms combined, they turn red and scientists, think it’s because it stirred up some of those chromophores put it up into the upper atmosphere and it you know, reacted with the UV light and turn red, and this Might possibly prove the whole chromophore theory, and this is how we think the Great Red Spot was made.
Friction created a vortex over a series of vortices between belt SC, B and zone s trap Z that eventually combined. These two areas are very strong jet streams that create a lot of storms, that many of which have been devoured by the Great Red Spot over the years, possibly feeding the storm and keeping it going and another newer theory about his longevity has to do with vertical Flows inside of the storm, a 3d model made by Pedram Hasan’s a day, a geophysical, fluid dynamicists at Harvard University suggest the vertical flows, take away cold gases and introduce warm gases that continually feed energy into the storm.
The model also suggests radio flows, pool wins from high-speed jet streams around the great spot into the storm center, which may also be helping to keep it going. But still there’s, no denying it. The Great Red Spot is shrinking and we don’t really fully understand.
Why now? Some people think that it might not be shrinking so much as just being redistributed, because observations have shown that the storm is getting progressively higher in the atmosphere, meaning it might just be going deeper instead of wider.
Like imagine that this is the Great Red Spot, let’s say we’re, looking at it horizontally like through the atmosphere, if you squeeze the circumference like this, it expands up and down so the volume stays the same.
It just goes more vertical than horizontal, and this new height is now carrying those chromophores into the upper atmosphere, causing it to go redder over time. It’s also becoming more round over time, so it might be that the the winds around it are picking up, speed and causing it sort of tighten the belt a little bit, but seriously something I can’t stress enough.
Is that all of this is just theories, our knowledge of Jupiter is so thin and it’s, just a giant mystery to us and don’t even get me started on the poles. I mean what is happening here. You know, unlike Mars, where you can just land on the surface and maybe write a little Rover around and take some pictures and stuff Jupiter’s.
Surface is barely even a surface. That’s, just a barrier beyond which the you know, the pressure attached to it causes the laws of physics to start crying uncle. So it’s, probably impossible to ever build a probe that can withstand the pressures and have to get down below the clouds and see what’s actually happening down there.
Underneath all that frothiness, the Galileo mission dropped a probe into the Jupiter’s, atmosphere and it collected data about the composition and the temperature and that kind of thing, but it only lasts of 57 minutes before jeepers, just crushed it like a tin, can Jupiter’s, a monster and there’s.
Also. The intense radiation around Jupiter, which means that long-term probes like Galileo and Juno, have to actually do it through a series of flybys, so they can limit their exposure to that radiation.
Juno’s. Mission began in 2011 has been producing some of the most mind-blowing images we’ve ever seen of Jupiter, including pictures from the closest flyby of the Great Red Spot in history. Its mission is expected to end in 2021, but there are more missions on the way India is launching a yet unnamed probe to Jupiter sometime in the 2020s, a Chinese National Space Administration has one plan for 2029, although most of our attention, when it comes jupiter, has To do with its moons, especially europa, which is the best opportunity in the entire solar system that we can think of with its underground ocean.
To possibly have life well, obviously, keep an eye on the great red spot over the next few years to see what happens. Maybe it’ll fizzle out and disappear, and we’ll, get to see a once in a millennium event, or maybe this is all part of its natural cycle and it might expand out and keep growing and outlive all of us.
So, to sum up this entire article fluid dynamics, it’s. Hard jupiter is basically a star that just didn’t have enough mass to become a star, like all my childhood dreams, that just didn’t work out. That way, maybe that’s, why it’s, so angry and frothy like me.
But if you’d, like to learn more about why it didn’t become a star or what would have happened if it had become a star. A great place to learn about all that stuff is the astronomy course. I’m brilliant don’t work.
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