This article, supported by curiosity stream, remember the extreme fads of the early 2000s. It’s like kind of everywhere. Everything was just suddenly extreme. You know extreme sports, extreme cheetos, extreme knitting, extreme yoga, you could say it got extremely out of hand.
Like does the world need extreme croquet, I mean after a while, the word extreme just loses all meaning until you look up at the sky, because the universe has produced some pretty extreme things in its time, some of which it’s kind of hard To wrap your head around, we humans love hearing about extremes, biggest the smallest oldest youngest, the smartest, the dumbest, the most handsome saddest.
Why do we do this? Is it to better understand ourselves? It’ll contextualize our place in the universe, or is it to give ourselves benchmarks to improve and grow or to make ourselves feel more powerful or attractive or giving? We’ve, been given a life on this tiny blue planet, and due to this miracle, we can look out into the universe and actually understand our place in it.
We may be the only creatures to our knowledge anyway, that have the ability to do this, and when we do so, we find a universe filled with extremes, extremes that are completely outside of our comprehension.
So for this episode we’re gon na look at some of those extremes. Some of the brightest hottest biggest things that we’ve, seen out there in the universe and since we all seem to be preoccupied with age, so much.
Why don’t? We start off looking at the oldest thing in the universe, the universe is about 13.8 billion years old, give or take a few years. So anything that gets close to that age is gon na qualify as one of the oldest things in universe, and one of those things is actually found right here in the Milky Way galaxy it’s, a star cluster called hp1, and it’s twelve point: eight billion years old, located in the middle of our galaxy’s, bulge and sir joke here.
Hp ones, age had previously conflicting estimates. However, the all-powerful gemini south telescope in Chile helped provide a more accurate age for this dark cluster. Outside the Milky Way, Genz 11 is currently considered the oldest and most distant galaxy in the universe.
It’s, approximately 32 billion my ears away, but wait, you may be saying: isn’t the universe, only 13.8 billion years old. How could it possibly be that far away good for you, you’re, paying attention.
Gnz 11 has been observed at what it looked like thirteen point four billion years ago, but, as we all know, the universe is expanding, which means it is now much further away from us now. Technically, the oldest thing in the universe is hydrogen because it was produced immediately after the Big Bang, which was again 13.
8 billion years ago. If you take anything away from this article, it’s that the universe is 13.8 billion years old. Although technically helium was also produced at the moment of the Big Bang, but in a much smaller amount than a hydrogen, now, interestingly, the most ancient type of molecules recently found in the planetary nebula is NGC, 7027 called helium hydride and it’s.
Basically, a combination of hydrogen and helium and it’s, thought to be the first molecular bonding compound ever created, so sure we can debate the definitions of hot and temperature and object, but just to keep things simple.
Let’s. Just talk about things that give off a lot of heat now, one of the hottest things in the universe actually happened, pretty close by cosmically speaking. Actually it’s, pretty close by by any relative terms, because it happened right here on earth.
It actually happened at the Large Hadron Collider during a CERN experiment. Scientists want to make a quark-gluon behave like a frictionless fluid like you do, and the experiment reached the temperature, nine point: nine trillion degrees, Fahrenheit or really freaking hot Celsius.
This temperature is more than three hundred sixty-six thousand times the heat of the center of our Sun. Then there’s, edek RNA, a binary hypergiants our system, that’s. Seventy five hundred light years away from us together the two stars reach about 72,000 degrees Fahrenheit on their surface, but when they get close to each other, it reaches one point: eight million degrees Fahrenheit and let’s, not forget quasar 3c273, which runs reportedly At around 36 to 72 trillion degrees Fahrenheit, but technically the hottest thing in the universe was the Big Bang, which happened when 13.
8 billion years ago, the earliest temperature, after the Big Bang, was 10 to the power of 32 Kelvin. That’s. A hundred million million million million million degrees Fahrenheit you’ll, want to wear at least SPF 50.
For that now, in case, you’re wondering while there’s, not a limit to how high a temperature can get. There is a limit to how low a temperature can get, of course, that’s. Absolute zero, absolute zero is zero Kelvin, and this is the point where there’s.
Absolutely no energy left in an object to produce heat anymore. So with that in mind, the coldest object in the universe is the boomerang nebula, which functions at a balmy, 1 degree, Kelvin or negative 457 degrees.
Fahrenheit brightness is defined as how much light an object produces that reaches our eyes, but brightness can be relative, though it hold a light, bulb right up to your eye. It can be just as bright as the Sun now outside of that light bulb in your eye.
There are a few extremely bright objects in the universe. Let’s start with a quasar, a quasar named this, not even gon na try it. I’m just gon na call. It Dave Dave. The quasar shines at an equivalent of 600 trillion Suns.
Luckily it’s. Twelve point: eight billion light years away, so you don’t have to worry about it. You can sleep at night, but there are some that think that its brightness is actually an illusion created by gravitational lensing yeah.
One interpretation of the data says that this quasars producing light from thirteen billion years ago, but it is passing through a galaxy cluster that may be intensifying the brightness of that light, intensifying it by a factor of 50 s.
So it may only be 10 to 12 trillion times as bright as the Sun. Do you even light bro? Now that is the case. Then there might be something that is actually brighter than Dave and that’s. A gamma-ray burst.
I’ve covered gamma-ray bursts in this channel before, but they’re, basically short bursts of extreme gamma radiation and they happen almost daily in the visible universe. But there was one particular one that was captured in January 2019 by one and Asus satellites: the explosion from GRB one nine zero one.
One four C happened in a galaxy more than four billion light-years away and it contained a hundred billion times as much energy as the light that we can see from it. Now we’re gon na talk about bright objects, it’s.
Only fair to talk about the opposite of that things that are denser or darker now. You might think that somebody with a different political view than yours might be the densest thing in the universe. You would be wrong that’s, because neutron stars are a thing.
Neutron stars are like black holes that didn’t quite black hole, but they carry about the same amount of gravitational force as a black hole. Most of these stars have a mass it’s about 1.4 times that of our Sun, but there are a few of these that stand out.
This neutron star, which I’ll, call Ben as mass 2.01 times out of our son, but in September of last year a new neutron star was discovered this one I’ll call it Jerry that has 2 point 1 4 times the Mass of our Sun.
Now those numbers might confuse you because you’re thinking. You know 2 times the size of our Sun. That doesn & # 39. T really sound that big, really but keep in mind. These stars are only 12 miles across ok, so you’ve got earth and then you & # 39.
Ve got the Sun, which is much bigger than the earth. Now imagine. The Sun is actually twice that size and then gets compressed down to the size of New York City. Neutron stars are bananas, but there’s.
One thing in the universe that sees that and just says: hold my beer inside the able 85 galaxy cluster about 700 million light years away there’s, a galaxy called home 15a and at the center of home 15a is a supermassive black hole.
40 billion times the mass of our Sun, 40 billion suns smash together so tightly that they create a singularity that rips through the fabric of space-time it doesn’t, get much more dense than that. All right, let’s, get to the biggest thing in the universe, starting with stars.
The biggest star in the universe is called uy scuti and it’s located approximately 9,500 light-years away near the centre of the Milky Way galaxy. It’s. Radius is 1,700 times larger than the Sun. The biggest galaxy is called IC 1101.
It’s 50 times larger in two thousand times more massive than the Milky Way. It also stretches for 5.5 million light years. Our galaxy only stretches for a hundred thousand light-years across nothing make a galaxy feel inadequate.
Of course, gravity can pull galaxies together to form galaxies clusters. In fact, NASA believes that 75 % of all galaxies are in clusters. The largest cluster is called El Gordo, officially known as a CT clj zero one, zero, two four nine one: five, this cluster contains 3 million billion suns nASA says it’s, the largest hottest and brightest x-ray galaxy cluster ever discovered in the distant universe, But believe it or not, that may get surpassed soon.
Astronomers have found two different galaxy clusters that are currently merging into one it’s in a system called Abel 1758, a quadruple galaxy cluster about 3 billion light-years earth and after it forms it will be one of the universe’s.
Most massive objects, but really, though, at the risk of sounding pedantic, if you want to argue that the universe is a single thing, then obviously the biggest thing in the universe is the universe itself.
Unless there’s a multiverse. But for the purposes of this article you got to stop somewhere now. All this stuff is super impressive might be hard to wrap your head around, but really when it all comes down to it.
It’s all based on a handful of physical principles. You know pretty simple stuff where the laws of nature really shine is when those simple elements come together to form bigger elements. This is where complexity starts.
To creep in complexity is like the maturing of matter. It’s like the ultimate thing that these things can do. So what’s, the most complex thing in the universe? Well, there is one object that stands above the rest, something we’re still struggling to understand it’s, capable of directing quadrillions of electrical signals and able to create structures and 11 dimensions.
What is this most extremely complex thing in the universe? It’s, your brain come on. You saw it coming, but seriously. The brain is made up of a hundred billion cells reaching out with multiple dendrites and axons, forming the most complex network of connections known to man.
It’s, thought to contain more than a hundred trillion pathways and it’s. Those pathways that make it possible for you to walk and talk and look up into the sky and question what are the most extreme things up there and the fact that you’re capable of doing that makes you the most extreme thing in the Universe, extreme, what do you think do you agree? Do you disagree even have to take my word for it? You can hear Brian Cox talk about it in his own words in his series, the human universe on curiosity stream.
The human universe examines the history of the universe through the eyes of the only known creatures who can experience it. That’s. Us humans, from how we rose from hairless apes, to spaceman, whether we’re alone in the universe and the big questions like why we’re here and where we’re going.
You know the small stuff and, of course, that’s, just one of hundreds of top quality documentaries on curiosity stream, covering everything from history to cutting-edge science and all that big brain stuff.
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