Doggies are good boys and girls. They can teach us so much. Why one time a doggy helped a friend named Ivan learn all about the human brain. He wanted to know why doggies drool, so he started ringing a bell every time.

His FET is donkey until the doggy got used to the bell whenever he food and then one time he rang a bell without any food, and you know what happened: the doggy drooled that doggy learned how to drill.

Just by hearing a bell. What is smart, doggy Ivan figured out that our brains worked the same way. You might not drill when you hear a bell, but your brain can connect different things and cause you to react accordingly, you can try this experiment at home start ringing a bell whenever you feed your doggy and see if it starts to drool.

Does your doggy drool? Congratulations, you’re, a scientist okay, so you run along now you have fun. Okay, you go play that’s. Right Pavlov was a monster when you hear the name Pavlov or something about a Pavlovian response.

You probably think something along the lines of the story that I just told that Pavlov was practically a dog trainer and he rang a bell. The dog drooled, and by doing so he learned something fundamental about psychology that changed, that field forever.

Yeah, you can say goodbye to that myth. The thing that Pavlov discovered is today known as classical conditioning they didn’t, call it classical conditioning back then, because it was brand-new at the time it was a breakthrough.

Actually, people didn’t think that you could train a person to perform. A reflex Pavlov changed that he found that if you paired a conditional stimulus, in this case, the food with a neutral stimulus in this case, the Bell, then you could eventually get the person to respond in a reflexive way to the neutral stimulus the same way.

They would to the conditional stimulus, in other words, if he ring a bell. While you feed a dog enough times eventually just ringing, the bell will cause the dog to salivate, as if there were food, and this opened up a whole new field of psychology known as behaviorism.

For the first time ever, we started to realize that there’s, a connection between psychology and physiology, our modern understanding of learning and addiction, and several psychological disorders all stemmed from this one field.

If you went to a Western school it’s almost guaranteed that you were taught according to the work, jonbi watson and BF Skinner. The way your teachers designed their classes was based on what they wrote about positive versus negative reinforcement or what their critics wrote about it either way.

All of that started with Pavlov. You ever worked out with we fit, or just tracked your workouts on an app. That is, straight-up behavior is gamification. The app might as well just bring a bell all that is to say that the work that pavlov did with his dogs shaped our society today in some really fundamental ways.

His importance is beyond question. It’s, how he got there that’s questionable, because it turns out he wasn’t trying to study the mind at all. He wasn’t a psychologist. He was a physiologist. Psychology actually was brand new at the time it kind of diverse from philosophy in 1879, which was also the same year that I have been Pavlov graduated from the Russian Imperial medical Military Academy.

What he was trying to study was digestion for the digestive glands. Specifically, he actually had a series of lectures on the digestive glands. It became a seminal book in this field creatively named the work of the digestive glands over 12 years of studying this subject, he became something of an expert on saliva and digestive secretions and how they work in the body.

His work on the mind only happened when he realized that it had some kind of an effect on the digestive system. It was just an extension of his digestive research. Now, with all this in mind, it should be no surprise that his methods were more biological in nature.

So before I continue and explain exactly what he did with his dogs, I’m gon na do something I’ve, never done on this channel before. Actually, I’m gon na issue, a trigger warning, because if you are a dog lover and if you don’t like the idea of dogs being hurt or being traumatized, you are not going to like what I’m About to say, and if it’s, not something you want to hear, I’m gon na put a little time stamp right here.

You can go to that time stamp and skip the the worst of it and yeah. I’m just giving you that warning. I’ll. Wait all right still here. Why why? Why are you? Why are you still here? Do you do you, like hearing about dogs being abused, dude dude get off on something like that? What is wrong with you, you, sick son of a bitch by all accounts.

Pavlov was a skilled surgeon and he was also very tenuous about the scientific method. It wasn’t enough to know that his dogs were drooling. He had to know how much and win so to find this out. He created holes in the dog’s, digestive systems, one in its stomach and one in the esophagus coming out of his throat, the one the stomach would collect.

Gastric juices and the one in the throat basically prevented the dog from eating. So if the dog did eat something or swallow, it would just you know, slide out the throat hole once in this state. The dogs were basically suspended over the floor in a harness and from time to time, food would be put in front of the dog just out of reach just enough for it to make some digestive and gastric juices, which were then collected just a reminder.

This is not a scene from Frankenstein or the reanimate, or this actually happened to hundreds of dogs and sadly, once in Pavlov’s hands, they live short, very hungry lives. The longest lived one lasted only ten days, all right.

So those of you who have rejoined us, you’re welcome. I saved you from the most squeamish bits, but you are back just in time because guess what it gets worse, because at this point you’re thinking about you know how terrible these experiments were, and all that sure, but you’re.

Also thinking about what I said earlier about how transformational it was to the world and how important his work was – and you know right now – you’re kind of weighing the pros and the cons and all that, but we haven’t Gotten to how he paid for this research turns out those digestive secretions he had on tap from Fido were actually considered a treatment for indigestion at the time people drank it.

It was like the Maalox of 1900 Russia Pavlov sold his dog juices to pharmacies to pay for his experiments, but of course, there’s, only so much juice. One dog can make. If you’re gon na make any real money at this, we’re gon na need a lot more dogs, so more dogs were brought into Pavlov’s house of horrors according to a biography by Daniel Pete Otis.

He basically just set up a factory where dogs were brought in tied up and drained of their gastric juices until they died, the labs sold 3,000 bottles of gastric juices per year and those sales counted for about 41 % of the labs budget.

Most of the dogs that came into Pavlov’s lab had nothing to do with the experiments whatsoever. They were just juice machines. It’s, important to know. None of this was a problem at the time he was internationally applauded.

Actually, he was given the 1904 Nobel Prize for Physiology or medicine that makes you feel better. He had to give the money that he won for that back to the state in 1917, after the Russian Revolution after the Revolution he struggled a bit like most Russians did, but over time he thrived under the Soviet regime linen and later, Stalin began to realize how Important his celebrity and his influence was, and they basically provided anything that he wanted so that he could expand his labs.

He ran the medical military academy under the Soviets, just as he had under the czars and when he died of pneumonia at the age of 86. Over a hundred thousand people came out for his funeral and ever since then his legacy has been sanitized into the story of the man who rang a bell and made a dog drool, the first Dog Whisperer.

Basically, I bet most of you never even knew anything about this. I mean, I know I was blown away by it, but I think what makes this most interesting to me is. It really makes you have to question. How do you measure a person’s actions? Millions of people have been helped through the understanding that this accidental discovery opened up to the world.

People with PTSD anxiety, all kinds of phobias – they’ve all benefited from this, and you can probably even make the argument that millions of dogs have better lives. Now, thanks to what Pavlov did you know, dog trainers today rely almost exclusively on positive reinforcement to get the results they want.

Where do you think that came from before Pavlov? It was a lot more stick and a lot less carrot. It’s, easy to be disgusted by his methods, almost impossible, not to be, but if it puts a net positive into the world you got to ask, you know: did the end justify the means as Pavlov’s, Contemporary Leon Trotsky once Said a means can only be justified by its end, but the end in turn needs to be justified by the way Pavlov and Trotsky were contemporaries, but they were hardly friends because Trotsky was Jewish and Pavlov was notably anti-semitic because, of course he was.

It should also be noted that millions of animals are experimented on and killed in labs all around the world today. That includes monkeys, pigs, goats and countless mice and rats, but that same ambiguity can be applied to them.

You know science continues to push forward. Expanding our lifespans and improving our health could it be argued that human progress is only possible through the suffering of others? Is that just part of life every rose has its thorn kind of thing? It would be better for us to slow down a little bit.

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